Regarding the Cosmic Microwave Background (CBM)



In this work, results obtained by the WMAP satellite are analyzed by invoking
established practices for signal acquisition and processing in nuclear magnetic
resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Dynamic range, image
reconstruction, signal to noise, resolution, contrast, and reproducibility are specifically
discussed. WMAP images do not meet accepted standards in medical imaging
research. WMAP images are obtained by attempting to remove a galactic foreground
contamination which is 1,000 times more intense than the desired signal. Unlike water
suppression in biological NMR, this is accomplished without the ability to affect the
signal at the source and without a priori knowledge. Resulting WMAP images have
an exceedingly low signal to noise (maximum 1–2) and are heavily governed by data
processing. Final WMAP internal linear combination (ILC) images are made from 12
section images. Each of these, in turn, is processed using a separate linear combination
of data. The WMAP team extracts cosmological implications from their data, while
ignoring that the ILC coefficients do not remain constant from year to year. In contrast
to standard practices in medicine, difference images utilized to test reproducibility are
presented at substantially reduced resolution. ILC images are not presented for year
two and three. Rather, year-1 data is signal averaged in a combined 3-year data set.
Proper tests of reproducibility require viewing separate yearly ILC images. Fluctuations
in the WMAP images arise from the inability to remove the galactic foreground,
and in the significant yearly variations in the foreground itself. Variations in the map
outside the galactic plane are significant, preventing any cosmological analysis due to
yearly changes. This occurs despite the masking of more than 300 image locations.
It will be advanced that any “signal” observed by WMAP is the result of foreground
effects, not only from our galaxy, but indeed yearly variations from every galaxy in
the Universe. Contrary to published analysis, the argument suggests there are only
questionable findings in the anisotropy images, other than those related to image
processing, yearly galactic variability, and point sources. Concerns are also raised
relative to the validity of assigning brightness temperatures in this setting.

Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Dept. of Radiology, The Ohio State University, 130 Means Hall, 1654 Upham Drive, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA